There is a difference between bookmarks and most visited pages, that appear on New Tab page. First ones you can see on the toolbar right under the address bar (as in your image), the other ones are generated from the history of your browsing.
Bookmarks are stored in
%localappdata%\Google\Chrome\User Data\Default\Bookmarks. Most visited pages are not stored, but generated from
%localappdata%\Google\Chrome\User Data\Default\History* files
My recommendation is that you should save your entire profile, i.e.
%localappdata%\Google\Chrome\User Data\Default folder and copy it to safe location. Since it seems like Google Chrome crashes in your computer does not depend on your profile, you can try to recover your bookmarks/most-visited-pages on friend's computer. Meanwhile you can also try to fix the problem with Google Chrome:
- Uninstall Google Chrome
- Remove entirely this folder:
- Search your registry for string "Chrome" and delete any related keys and values
- Update your antivirus database and scan your computer for viruses
- Download fresh version of Google Chrome from http://www.google.com/chrome. Do not reuse old installer - it may be infected by a virus.
- Install it and try running
If this still doesn't help, then the problem is way to complex and requires an attention of an IT professional (with remote control or similar). If you have such friends -- let them try to help. Hiring professional is typically quite expensive, I would then recommend using another browser or reinstalling Windows.