I have a spare working laptop screen. Are there any adapters that would let me hook it up to a VGA or DVI port? This is what the display wire looks like:
Yes, there are adapters.
However, as a rule, they cost more than an equivalent desktop LCD, so it's not really worth the effort. In addition, it does require some knowledge of electronics, as you may have to make a custom adapter to connect the LCD to the controller.
Furthermore, you really need the datasheet on your specific LCD module. It may be possible to find this by googling the various serial numbers you find on stickers on the module, but a lot of manufactures have their LCDs custom made for them, and there is very little information available.
If you're dead set on it, EarthLCD sells LCD controllers.