Changes to layer properties are based on the concept of keyframes, which are individual time markers. What you are doing to create a layer change is setting keyframes at different points in time, and setting the change values at each given point. AfterEffects will then interpolate the change values in between the keyframes.
So, using your example for hue, let's use 10 seconds instead of 10 frames. let's say that you want the layer's hue value to change from 100% to 50% back to 100% over a 10 second period, beginning at the 1 minute mark of your video.
At the 1 minute point on the layer's timeline, you'll set a keyframe. Set another at the 1:10 point. Set the hue value for the layer at these keyframes to 100%. Then, somewhere between thes 2 100% hue value keyframes, set another keyframe. Set the hue value for this keyframe to 50%.
When you preview your movie, AE will interpolate the hue values automatically between the keyframes, fro 1005 to 50% to 100%, over the amount of time between the keyframes. You can space the keyframes as far or close as you want, and set whatever values you want for the parameters that you are changing.