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I found System Preferences → Keyboard → Modifier Keys menu, but I can map other modifier key to it, not a keyboard shortcut.

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up vote 7 down vote accepted

My guide on how to do that:

http://dae.cyberic.eu/blog/select-input-language-by-caps-lock-in-mac-os-x/

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1  
It is okay to link to your blog posting, but it would be better if you could include some of the details directly in your answer. – Chris Johnsen Mar 15 '11 at 4:39

If your keyboard language layout pair is English-Russian you can try to use Punto Switcher from Yandex for Windows and Mac. It not about Caps, but about what you typing - for example it will automatically replace ghbdtn to привет.

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Unfortunately, what you want to accomplish cannot be done with what OS X gives you. I have hacked a keyboard layout to switch to Cyrillic when Caps Lock is on, but it's a bit ugly - everything happens within the same actual keyboard layout (flag in menu bar does not change), and some apps behave funny with it (most shortcuts do not work in Mozilla-based software, for example). Ukelele is your friend here, as Felix pointed out, but I would love to find a true solution to have Caps Lock switch the actual layouts.

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