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After discovering and replacing my dead PSU, I was able to boot back into Windows. Everything seems to be working fine, however, one hard drive is not. Windows 7 says that this SATA hard drive needs to be formatted before it can work. Can the data be recovered? Also, is there a way to check the integrity of the other components of my computer or assume they will work fine?

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You should consider downloading the Ultimate Boot CD, a collection of 100+ utilities to run from CD on bootup that can evaluate your hardware. I routeinly use it to check memory (MemTest86+) as well as hard drives as they have manufacturer specific tools from Western Digital, Seagate, and others.

I'm fuzzy what other hardware it would help you evaluate, but its a very useful tool for someone in your situation.

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try giving testdisk a shot on the drive

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I tried testdisk. It thinks the drive is only about 30 megs large, in reality its 1TB. It was able to see the drive is really 1 TB but wasn't able to recover the data. Am I missing something? – yxk Mar 13 '10 at 22:49
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You said "It thinks the drive is only about 30 megs large, in reality its 1TB. It was able to see the drive is really 1 TB", which is a contradiction. Does it report the disk as 30 MB or 1 TB? – Alexander Burke Mar 14 '10 at 1:49
    
Reports it as 33MB - CHS 64 16 63, but it also says "Warning: Bad ending head (CHS and LBA don't match)". On the next screen it says: "The harddisk (33 MB / 31 MiB) seems too small! (<1000 GB / 931 GiB) Check the harddisk size: HD jumper settings, BIOS detection... Hint: update Windows to support LBA48 (minimum: W2K SP4 or XP SP1)". Then says the following partition can't be recovered, listing the partition. – yxk Mar 14 '10 at 6:12
    
That sounds like the BIOS detection of the drive no longer works properly, but the drive might be OK. – pjc50 Feb 23 '12 at 13:28

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