I only have the ordinary cooling mechanism of a computer. 1 fan for the power supply and two fans that share the same cable. Can benchmarking my computer lead to burning of the processor or the ram or the hdd? Can you give me some applications that can lead to this
Short answer: maybe.
Long answer: it is not the benchmarking app that is damaging components, but improper care or overclocking. Improper care is when you leave your fans jammed with dust and hair. Their capability to remove heat decreases and heat is not good for electronics. Overclocking also leads to extreme heat accumulation, and often it is done with intentionally voltage increasements, which are even more bad for components.
Anyway most of the modern components have thermal protection that shuts them down when a heat levels exceed defined thresholds. Most of the old CPUs doesn't have such thermal throttling and Youtube is crowded with clips of burned processors.