I actually ran into this on Win7 x64 (using VS2008 SP1), and the problem turned out to be a botched install. Running the repair install from the Programs and Features control panel seems to start and repair partially before the installer crashes, but it still fixed the missing icons (just choose "cancel" after the "Did this program install correctly?" dialog). This also had the side-effect of fixing just-in-time debugging (which was also broken for our install).
I wonder how common this scenario is, since it looks like our image/deployment was made with this bad installation, but it's another thing that seems worth trying should others encounter this issue.