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I would like to know some command line code that will upGRADE Microsoft Security Essentials. There is code for upDATEing, but upGRADING is more elusive.

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You will need to download the appropriate installer for the new version you want to upgrade to, and then run that file. The files are available from the microsoft download center. Save the file, then run setupfilename.exe /s /runwgacheck /o to silently run the installer without displaying any dialogs. It should then install the upgrade automatically. Note that the installer does not officially support command line parameters, so in future versions, the command line options may change or go away.

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Well as MSE is now in WSUS and Windows Update you might want to do something like wuauclt /detectnow

There are scripts out there that will run the full detect and install for WUAU that might help but I would think you only need to download the latest MSI or EXE and use msiexec to install it silently.

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I'm not sure you can do it via MSE. The command line options for it are as follows:

C:>cd %ProgramFiles%\Microsoft Security Essentials

C:\Program Files\Microsoft Security Essentials>MpCmdRun

Microsoft Antimalware Service Command Line Utility (c)2006-2008 Microsoft Corp
Use this tool to automate and troubleshoot Microsoft Antimalware Service

MpCmdRun.exe [command] [-options]

Command Description
   -? / -h                         Displays all available options for this tool
   -Trace [-Grouping #] [-Level #] Starts diagnostic tracing
   -RemoveDefinitions [-All]       Restores the installed signature definitions
                                   to a previous backup copy or to the original
                                   default set of signatures
   -RestoreDefaults                Resets the registry values for
                                   Microsoft Antimalware Service
                                   settings to known good defaults
   -SignatureUpdate [-UNC]         Checks for new definition updates
   -Scan [-ScanType]               Scans for malicious software
   -Restore -Name <name> [-All]    Restore the most recently or all quarantined
                                   item(s) based on name
   -GetFiles                       Collects support information

Additional Information:

Support information will be in the following directory:
C:\ProgramData\Microsoft\Microsoft Antimalware\Support

   -Scan [-ScanType]
        0  Default, according to your configuration
        1  Quick scan
        2  Full system scan

   -Trace [-Grouping value] [-Level value]
        Begins tracing Microsoft Antimalware Service's actions.
        You can specify the components for which tracing is enabled and
        how much information is recorded.
        If no component is specified, all the components will be logged.
        If no level is specified, the Error, Warning and Informational levels
        will be logged. The data will be stored in the support directory
        as a file having the current timestamp in its name and bearing
        the extension BIN.

        0x1    Service
        0x2    Malware Protection Engine
        0x4    User Interface
        0x8    Real-Time Protection
        0x10   Scheduled actions

        0x1    Errors
        0x2    Warnings
        0x4    Informational messages
        0x8    Function calls
        0x10   Verbose
        0x20   Performance

        Gathers the following log files and packages them together in a
        compressed file in the support directory

        - Any trace files from Microsoft Antimalware Service
        - The Windows Update history log
        - All Microsoft Antimalware Service events from the System event log
        - All relevant Microsoft Antimalware Service registry locations
        - The log file of this tool
        - The log file of the signature update helper tool

        Restores the last set of signature definitions

        Removes any installed signature and engine files. Use this
        option if you have difficulties trying to update signatures.

        Removes all Dynamic Signatures.

        Resets all configuration options to their default values; this is the
        equivalent of running Microsoft Antimalware Service setup

        Checks for new definition updates

        Performs update directly from UNC file shares

   -Restore -Name <name>
        Restores the most recently quarantined item based on name

        Restores all the quarantined items based on name

   -AddDynamicSignature -Path <path>
        Adds a Dynamic Signature specified by <path>

   -RemoveDynamicSignature -SignatureSetID <SignatureSetID>
        Removes a Dynamic Signature specified by <SignatureSetID>

        Lists SignatureSet ID's of all Dynamic Signatures added to the client
        via SpyNet and MPCMDRUN -AddDynamicSignature
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