Where can I see some pictures of how the CPU looks from inside?
If you mean photographs, Google Images search for microprocessor die.
If you mean on a logical level, you'll need to understand some digital logic and computer architecture. UA has a course on digital logic online, which will tell you what the building blocks are. For architecture, I would recommend the book by Hennessey and Patterson, having used it in the past.
If you want block diagrams, searching around will be your best bet, e.g. one of a Pentium and one of a Xeon. But I don't think these will be very useful unless you have a decent understanding of digital logic and architecture first.