Mindtouch, Enterprise version, has good integration with MS Office via the Desktop Connector Suite. with it one can publish from Word to the wiki with a button push. The result is a wiki page which is usually faithful to the original, including inline images. The source document is attached to the page so one can always see it as intended.
Double clicking on the attached office doc (any type) opens the associated program. When the file is saved or closed the attached version is automatically updated. Attachments are versioned.
There is an API and command line tools which enable scripting of the above process.
It's a great tool, however it only works with the commercial version of Mindtouch. There is a Community Mindtouch Desktop Suite which works with Mindtouch Core, the open source version. It does not have the MS Office integration, but one can interact with the wiki using a Windows Explorer like interface and drag and drop files to/from the wiki, where they are stored as attachments.
Both desktop suites have a common heritage and the core/commercial wiki engines are identical so one could, in principle, add office integration to the community edition. That this has not happened to date indicates it would be significant undertaking.
As for the server, it can be installed on Microsoft Server 2003+ and use IIS though it still bundles mysql. Through Enterprise Adapters it can draw from/to any industry standard database. The easiest way to try it out is through a linux vmware appliance though (hosted on Windows if you wish).
New this summer is Mindtouch Platform v.10 which appears to be a hybrid of Mindtouch Core and Enterprise, and mentions the desktop suite.