They are all frameworks, so in theory you don't need them but software that requires a certain framework will not run without it installed. Generally, unless you have a real pressing need to remove them they are unlikely to do any harm nor damage performance and I would recommend keeping them.
@firedfly has already mentioned the Visual C++ Redistributable (and yes, I agree that you really should really keep this one).
The User-Mode Driver Framework is also pretty important, as it allows some drivers to run in "user mode" (by providing an API for the kernal instead of the driver having direct access), which helps protect the system if they fail. I'm not sure if these drivers require the framework, but I would guess they do.
The XNA Framework is used in the construction of some games (XNA being a game development studio / toolset), so without the redistributable you will be unable to run games that requires this.
Similarly, the Sync Framework Runtime works on the same priciples, but again for a different set of software.