Since nobody seems to want to tackle this question, I'll take a shot at it.
In the "near future" (let's say 10 years) this will only happen if one of the major OS flavors puts a lot of weight behind the idea. Specifically, I think for a Managed OS to get any traction, Microsoft will have to take their Singularity project and incorporate major aspects (and a managed code base) into their main Windows line.
That being said, I think that this is a possible (though unlikely) direction that the OS market could drift to in the next 50 years, depending on what the technology and hardware requires from an OS, and what the customer base is interested in.
I say "unlikely" because at the moment any advantage given by using a "managed environment" can be simulated in a "good enough" way by all major unmanaged environments. Consumers don't "need" a managed environment at the moment, and nobody is trying to build up reasons to drive consumer demand.