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After a restart of the DB server last night, I cant seem to log in to SQL Management Studio - but I know that I have the right server name, user name and password. And I know the login details haven't changed - the website is still running just fine using the connection string in the web.config.

What could cause this problem?

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You need to post the error message you are getting for us to be able to assist you... – JNK Sep 13 '10 at 23:25
Sorry it is "Timeout expired. The timeout period elapsed prior to completion of the operation or the server is not responding. (Microsoft SQL Server, Error: -2)" – JK- Sep 13 '10 at 23:35
How are you accessing SQL Server? Through an app, through Management Studio? – JNK Sep 14 '10 at 2:35

I assume you are trying to connect using Management Studio on your workstation.

Are you able to log onto the SQL Server box using RDP / MSTSC (or even physically at the server if possible)?

If so, try connecting using Management Studio directly on the SQL box.

This will determine if there is a problem connecting to SQL Server itself or if it is a network issue between your workstation and the SQL Server box.

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Configuration changes to the SQL Server are only applied after restarts. Someone could have changed something weeks before the server rebooted and not noticed the impact the change had until the restart. Most likely, if you're timing out, the server could have had the port changed that SQL listens on, or external access could have been switched off.

So I agree with Shevek, Remote into the server, or go to the physical box and see if you can get in with SSMS there.

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