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I have a Intel Xeon CPU at 3.06GHz with 512KB cache size.

I was wondering if the on-chip cache for the machine is L1 or L2. Is there a way of knowing that through a Unix command?

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You don't say which flavour of Unix, but on Linux you can:

$ cat /proc/cpuinfo 
processor       : 0
vendor_id       : AuthenticAMD
cpu family      : 15
model           : 72
model name      : AMD Turion(tm) 64 X2 Mobile Technology TL-60
stepping        : 2
cpu MHz         : 1994.397
cache size      : 512 KB
fpu             : yes
fpu_exception   : yes
cpuid level     : 1
wp              : yes
flags           : fpu vme de pse tsc msr pae mce cx8 apic sep mtrr pge mca cmov pat pse36 clflush mmx fxsr sse sse2 syscall nx mmxext fxsr_opt rdtscp lm 3dnowext 3dnow pni cx16 lahf_lm
bogomips        : 3992.75
TLB size        : 1024 4K pages
clflush size    : 64
cache_alignment : 64
address sizes   : 36 bits physical, 48 bits virtual
power management: ts fid vid ttp tm stc

Not sure how to get the same amount of information from a Solaris box. The closest I've found is:

$ /usr/sbin/psrinfo -v
Status of virtual processor 0 as of: 08/07/2009 10:43:52
  on-line since 01/19/2009 12:17:57.
  The i386 processor operates at 2612 MHz,
        and has an i387 compatible floating point processor.
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The Intel Xeon 512KB has a 512KB L2 cache.

enter image description here

E7501, Intel® Xeon® Processor 3.06 GHz, 512K Cache, 533 MHz FSB

However, it would be a good idea to check your processor model and look it up.
The memory spec in the processor name is usually the L2.
While the processor has a L1 and a L3 cache too.

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The BIOS of the computer might have detailed processor information. Many of them will list the size of the L1 and L2 caches along with the speed and model of the cpu within the computer.

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If you are on Windows, I highly recommend CPU-Z - it will identify your CPU, memory, and motherboard in great detail.

enter image description here

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512KB is too big to be L1 cache, likely it's L2. And yes, all recent L2 caches are located within the die (along w/ L1).

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