Gnome Terminal allows to have different profiles. Is it possible to get the profile name under which that terminal started from the command line?
This doesn't seem to be possible, however you can find out the default terminal title, so all you need to do to distinguish between tabs or profiles is to configure different default titles.
The control sequence
Here's a bash function that sets the variable whose name is passed as the first argument to the xterm title, if available. It times out after one second if the terminal doesn't support the feature, and returns a non-zero error code.