With both Win 7 and Android, you normally want to associate an online account with it (MSN/Windows Live/Passport for Windows Phone, Gmail/Google Apps/Google Account for Google) so that the phone's apps, settings, etc are backed up to the cloud, Appstore/Market downloads are associated with this account, etc. That is not compulsory but is advised, and the account you use doesn't have to have a mailbox, etc associated with it at all.
In addition they can both connect to Exchange servers via Exchange Active Sync for mail/calendar/contacts. They both support a sub-set of the Exchange security policies (password, lock, remote wipe, etc).
Don't know about Win Phone 7, but Android does have the capability to connect to networks via VPN, but it does depend on the make and type of VPN you have.
A lot of the above assumes that your phone is running Android 2.1 or higher.
Edit with additional info:
To create a Windows Live account with no mailbox, just go to http://www.passport.net click Sign Up and use your existing email as the login. To create a Google account with no mailbox, go to http://www.google.com click Sign In, click Create One For Free and fill it in using your existing email account.