When I start Chrome through an application shortcut, the address bar, extensions buttons and bookmark buttons are hidden. Is there a way to show them?
Fom Chrome's website Help
When you double-click a shortcut icon, the website opens in a special streamlined window that doesn't display tabs, buttons, the address bar, or menus. Many of the browser functions are available instead in the menu that appears when you click the page logo in the upper-right corner of the window.
This design is a purposeful setting. If you wish to open pages with the address bar, extensions etc then use it as a favourite in a normal browser window.