I'm afraid that you'll most likely have to replace the port.
The ports themselves aren't very expensive (they are around $0.8 here), but you need to know where to look. Normal computer parts stores don't stock them. Instead you'd need a store for electronics engineers. If you don't know such a place, here's a starting point (you'll probably be able to find a port such as one you need on the list). Here's another. Another popular supplier is http://www.digikey.com, but I don't know how to link to their search results.
The second problem is to replace the port itself. You'll need lots of soldering experience or someone with lots of soldering experience. If you don't know how to replace the part, it's be best to look for electronics repairman and have him get the replacement part. This way, you'll be sure that you'll get right part. Do note that many computer repair technicians will most likely tell you that you have to replace entire board. That's the reason why it may be a better idea to look for TV technician or some other type which is actually used to repairing things and not just replacing components.
About the error itself: As far as I know, it is specified by USB standard that if the port detects short-circuit it should power down and OS should notify user. This way damage which would normally result is avoided. Many motherboards don't have good protection, so I'd say you're lucky that it's still working.