The most important attribute is likely to be
because you want the data to be safely written and retrieved at anytime.
Usually it takes years to have a FS tried and tested.
Integrity leads to dependencies. For instance, in special occasions, like power cut or system crash,
is a crucial factor. Journaling is commonly an attribute that maximizes data integrity.
is also important. Journaling is likely to slow down write operations.
Speed depends also upon the implementation of the FS, using of memory, caches...
Is the FS readable from another operating system? For instance, it works on Linux, but can you mount and read it from Mac OS?
Other attributes may or may not an important factor, depending on your needs
- Encryption: does the FS handle data encryption, requiring a key to mount it?
- Read-only: an attribute to allow a write-protected mount
- relatime like attribute, allow to write the access time only during write operations (to minimize the TOC writings)
For instance, some explanations of the ext4 file system mount options.
Edit - about the Access Control List (per-user / group access to the data)
The ACL is not really an attribute of the FS.
It can be integrated within the file system, but, depending on the FS, mounting from a platform to a different platform may completely override the user access control. The global access being controlled by lower level attributes. as the ones detailed above for instance.