When I move a bootable NTFS partition with Windows on it to a different block offset, what needs updating to make it bootable again?
Background: I plan to write a program that performs the necessary actions, that's why I am not seeking for guides how to use Microsoft's tools by booting from a Windows DVD. Instead, I need how to modify these things myself, so that I can write a solution that's easier for the average PC user when he wants to move his Windows system to a bigger hard disk.
In particular, here's what I tried:
I have a disk with several partitions, one of which is the NTFS partition with Windows on it, and the disk uses the plain old MBR block 0 for the partitions layout (no more than 4 partitions).
Now I format and partition a new, larger, disk. There I make room for the NTFS partition and copy the contents from the old disk's NTFS Windows partition into. And I make the partition "active".
However, when I try to boot from this disk, I get a "read error" message immediately and the booting stops, the exact text is:
A disk read error occurred Press Ctrl+Alt+Del to restart
I verified that both disks have the same boot sector code in block 0.
It seems to me that something else might need updating. I guess that somewhere there's a absolute block reference that I need to update, probably pointing to the next level loader or to the NT kernel.
Update: I found this article going quite into the depth of what I want to know. However, it says to modify boot.ini, but I have Windows 7 installed here, where such things appear to have changed: No boot.ini but a folder called System Volume Information with GUID and other data in it that sounds related to my problem. Going to keep digging...
Update 2: Thanks to the terrible looking but very informative website by starman, I was able to figure out the first step: The NTFS boot sector has a field for "hidden" sectors. This feld has to contain the sector number of the boot sector. This solves the "read error" message. Now, however, I get a "BOOTMGR is missing" error instead. Looks like there's another place where a block number has to be adjusted, but I can't find anything in the code listing about this.
I do find a lot of help sites suggesting Windows tools for fixing this "BOOTMGR is missing" problem, but none seem to know what goes on behind the scenes. Kind of like suggesting to re-install Windows when there's a little problem with it. At least, those fixes seem to work, mostly involving the Bcdedit and Bootrec tools. Now, who knows what they do, especially the latter, in regards to a moved partition?
Update 3: After lots of trial-and-error attempts, I believe now that the solution lies in the BCD-Template registry file, residing usually inside \Windows\System32\config. If I get this updated using the "bcdboot" command, Windows starts up from it. I am now in the middle of figuring out what information this registry contains relevant to the above question. Any pointers to the contents of this registry are welcome.
Update 4: Turns out that while the BCD-Template file gets rewritten and has different binary contents than its predecessor, the values inside do not change. So it must be something else that bcdboot.exe writes. I had previously already checked if it changes the first 32 boot blocks of the partition, but they appear to remain unchanged. Parititon map doesn't get changed, either. So what is it that bcdboot modifies besides the BCD registry? Any tips on how I can trace that? Are there low level tools that show me what files a program writes to?
Update 5: The answer seems to be: c:\Boot\BCD is also changed, and that appears to be the key file for the boot manager's process. I'll investigate this later...
Update 6: It seems to be an important detail that I had originally two partitions created when I installed Windows 7: A small partition of 204800 sectors which appears to be a bootstrap partition, followed by the actual, large, partition containing the Windows system (drive C:). When I tried to transfer this installation to a new, larger, disk, I had kept the same two partitions intact on the new drive, although they ended up at a different offset. This alone led to the "BOOTMGR is missing" message. Since then, I've used bcdboot.exe only on the Windows partition, which added the \Boot\BCD file on that partition. That file (and folder) did originally only exist on the smaller partition. Hence, this problem may be more complicated in my case as one partition (the boot strapper) referred to another partition (the one containing the OS), whereas other people may only have to deal with one partition containing both, and maybe there the solution is simpler.
Update 7: Found one more detail: The \Boot\BCD file records the MBR's serial number. If that number doesn't match, the system won't boot. Next I'll test if there's also an absolute block reference stored in there.