The attributes you see stored there are a part of the EXIF data that is stored within a JPEG file, and is a feature of the program you used to write the file. It is not typical for programs like MS Paint or others to bother writing that kind of data at all, let alone telling you it was them who wrote the file.
Typically the EXIF data is used by digital cameras to list all the camera settings used to take a picture, but as you can see, it has other uses too.
Without specifically going out and testing every image editor under the sun I would not expect to be able to find out which editors leave their marks on files and how exactly they make their marks at all. What you found is only one of a very large number of ways a file could be identified and it is by no means a standard, as I would expect the standard to be that a program does not bother to fill in any data of that sort at all (in the way that MS Paint does).
There may be subtleties in the way image encoders are set up in each program that could give some kind of "digital fingerprint" of the program, but the time and effort to even begin to find that kind of thing would be prohibitive for anyone outside of dedicated facilities.
Windows itself is no use here either, as the only details it stores of that type would be the last modified date and the user who currently owns the file. Storing the program that created the file would not be impossible for the operating system to do, but it would be considered a waste of storage space and pointless as it would only be able to trace it on the system that the file was created on and if it was copied to another computer the program that created it would be "Explorer" as that would be the program that copied (and thus created) the file.