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Since modern routers don't check the header-checksum any more to increase performance I'm wondering what my computer is doing with defective data-packets?

Further reading links appreciated.

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It discards bad packets, and as posted below by BloodPhilia, it requests the same packet again and again until it gets a good one. – Moab Jan 31 '11 at 22:04
up vote 2 down vote accepted

It requests the data packet again. Wikipedia has a nice article that explains the workings of the TCP (Transmission Control Protocol). This protocol makes sure that lost (or damaged) data packages are intercepted and a packet repeat is then requested.

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