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I would like to achieve the following behaviour:

When I launch iTerm2, if there is a tmux session running, connect to it. If there is no tmux session running, create one and connect to it.

Any pointers greatly appreciated!

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2  
Note that iTerm2 now has built in tmux support. I don't know how to best make use of it (and thus found this through a search to learn about it), but things should be significantly simpler now. It'd be great to see this updated for this new workflow. – Matt B. Jan 26 '12 at 22:36
    
Not sure about setting it up to auto connect, but there is information here which could help you modify @Felix's script. – askewchan Jan 9 at 19:46

I use this script, which is execd whenever my shell starts as a login shell. You'll probably want to edit this a bit...

#/usr/bin/env zsh

local tmux=$1
local sname
local ssh

[[ -z "$tmux" ]] && tmux=tmux

# export COLORTERM to fix some programs
case "$TERM" in
  *256color)
    export COLORTERM="$TERM" ;;
esac

# build a fancy session name
[[ ! -z "$SSH_CLIENT" ]] && ssh="/$SSH_CLIENT"
sname=$(print -P "%D{%Y-%m-%d-%H-%M-%S}/%n/%y$ssh")

# make sure session 0 exists  
$tmux has-session -t 0 2>/dev/null || $tmux new-session -d -s 0

# create our own mirroring session
$tmux new-session -d -s "$sname" -t 0

# this doesn't return until the session is closed or detached
$tmux attach-session -t "$sname"

# kill the mirroring session if it's not dead already 
$tmux has-session -t "$sname" 2>/dev/null && $tmux kill-session -t "$sname"

# return to prompt outside of tmux if special file is present 
if [[ -f "$TMUX_LEAVE_SHELL_FILE" ]]; then
  rm "$TMUX_LEAVE_SHELL_FILE"
  exec zsh -i
fi

Relevant section in my .zshrc

# drop into tmux if this is a login shell and we're not in tmux already
if (which tmux >/dev/null) && [[ -o login ]] &&  [[ -z "$TMUX" ]] && [[ -f ~/etc/script/tmux-login ]]; then
  exec zsh "$HOME/etc/script/tmux-login" $(which tmux)
fi

# handy command to detach tmux but keep the shell running (kind-of)
case $TERM in
  screen)
    alias detach="touch $TMUX_LEAVE_SHELL_FILE && tmux detach" ;;
esac
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