Debian still ships TeXLive 2009, which is now pretty quickly getting pretty ancient. As far as I know, there is no package (neither official nor unofficial) of TeXLive 2010. You have pretty much three options:
You can install your own version of TeXLive 2010 in the
/usr/local/ tree. Download it from tug, and follow the Unix installation instruction on that page. That will give you a complete current version of TeXLive. You will then be able to use
tlmgr to keep your installation up to date. If you choose that path, make sure that the path to the new binaries is in your
$PATH, and also in the roots
$PATH, in order for maintainance binaries such as
tlmgr to work.
You can keep your current TeXLive, and just install the new versions of the packages you need in your local
texmf tree. The local
texmf tree on Debian based distributions is in
/usr/local/share/texmf. If you don't have that directory, create it (as root, you will need to use
sudo), download the packages from CTAN, and install them in there. You will need to run
texhash as root to refresh TeX's file database, otherwise TeX will not find the new packages. The actual installation procedure will differ from package to package. If you can find a "tds compliant" zip file, you can just unzip it in
texhash as root and you will be done. If not, your best bet is to follow instruction in the README file that came with the package, or look at the package documentation if it contains some installation instructions.
If you are the only one using TeX on that computer, you can also install the packages in your personal
texmf tree, which on Debian is, I believe, in
~/texmf. The procedure for installing is pretty much the same as when installing in the local texmf tree, except that you don't have to be the root, and you don't have to run
texhash after installation.
If you post the list of individual packages, someone may be able to give you more details.