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Will Synergy recognize or allow four clients, one of which has 3 monitors for a total of 6 monitors?

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It will work, but how you configure it depends on the OS. Under Windows, all attached monitors are treated as one "screen", so depending on the layout multiple screens may share an edge (so if you have two screens side by side, there is only one "top" edge. If you want to split this so that moving up on either screen goes to a different monitor, you will need to edit the config file and use partial edges.)

Under Linux with Xinerama (or nVidia TwinView) this is the same, but if you use separate X11 screens (aka Zaphod mode, where you can't drag windows between monitors, and DISPLAY=:0.1, :0.2, etc.) then it behaves quite differently and you may need to run one instance of Synergy for each screen.

I'm not sure about a multi-monitor Mac, but I'm guessing it's the same as Windows and Linux with Xinerama.

This is assuming the monitors form a more-or-less complete rectangle with no gaps (e.g. all the screens are in a line.) If the PC with three screens doesn't have them in a line (e.g. two side by side and one above) then it becomes much more complex and may not be possible to switch screens from every monitor edge you would like to.

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I use it with one Windows machine with 2 monitors, one Ubuntu machine with two monitors, and one Ubuntu machine with 1 monitor. I have added a 4th before, but didn't use it so got rid of it. So I believe you would be fine with that setup.

My Windows PC is the server, as setting up the server in linux is painful at best. (at least to me)

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I'm happy it worked for you, what did you have to do to make it work, please? – Metagrapher Oct 3 '15 at 5:29
I have completely discontinued using this setup as I have completely changed environments. – Joshua Nurczyk Oct 8 '15 at 6:30

AFAIK there is no limitations on Synergy's support; as long as you are able to adequately describe the layout in the configuration, its possible. I ran the server on a dual-display iMac with a client being a triple-display Windows machine before, so I would guess that you'd be fine.

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I'm happy it worked for you, what did you have to do to make it work, please? – Metagrapher Oct 3 '15 at 5:28
That was 6 years, 4 jobs, and 7 setups ago. I just looked and while I have files from that machine, my synergy config wasn't among them. I do remember that back then the UIs weren't that great so I wrote the configs by hand. I would check out the synergy project's website; those guys do a pretty good job supporting users and answering questions. – peelman Oct 4 '15 at 14:18
thank you much for revisiting. I was struggling with this (still am, in spite of valid configs) and was a bit frustrated with all the "works for me" answers on this page. So I truly very much appreciate that you looked :) – Metagrapher Oct 6 '15 at 1:23
which, rereading the original question, didn't ask for that specificity, so ever more thanks :) – Metagrapher Oct 6 '15 at 1:25

Yes, I've done it before with non-asymmetric number of monitors, and it worked great!

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I'm happy it worked for you, what did you have to do to make it work, please? – Metagrapher Oct 3 '15 at 5:29

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