As the person above said: "True type fonts have their names embedded inside".
I'm making my own custom font file (but I'm not a font developer), and I also able to put the names in different languages in the font file, and it (the situation) must be the same for the real font developers.
For me, I make my own font with CJK support (with differentiation for C/J/K) as a lot of program can load only one font at one time and I can't set four different fonts (for Latins, Chinese, Japanese, Korean) to load at the same time in those programs.
I can view all the names in different languages via my font editor itself.
For example, my font Hidayat's Custom Font CJK .
It will appear as Hidayat's Custom Font CJK in US/UK English Windows, appear as 喜达亚CJK字体 in Singaporean/PRC Chinese Windows, appear as やつこ自分のCJK字体 in Japanese Windows and Font CJK Hidayat Sendiri in Malay Windows as I already defined those names in my font. And the font developer must have done the same thing that 微软雅黑 appeared in Chinese ver. Windows. (微软wēi ruǎn means Microsoft->微wēi is "very tiny" and 软ruǎn is "soft" and 雅黑yǎ hēi is the font name)
Well, I've said that I'm using a font editor to view the names in the "naming" part.
Look at these (my font used as the examples, IDon'tWant to violate laws!):
Naming (US English): https://puu.sh/2GaIs.png
Naming (PRC Chinese): http://puu.sh/2GaRY.png
Naming (Japanese): http://puu.sh/2GaUz.png
Naming (Singaporean Chinese): http://puu.sh/2GaXQ.png
Naming (UK English): http://puu.sh/2GaZB.png
Naming (Malaysian Malay): http://puu.sh/2Gb0F.png