I'm navigating to "Programs and Features" in the Windows 7 control panel, with the intent to uninstall some programs. Some entries there have (remove only) in their names. What does this mean? Is something going to be left on my machine after I "only remove" this program?
Every application in Windows may have upto three options in 'Programs and Features' section; ie uninstall, change or repair.
(Remove Only) applications can only be uninstalled. The change and repair options will not be available.
The below image is for reference showing all the three available options.
This is just a convention that used to be somewhat useful in the past. It doesn't mean anything any more.
In modern Windows versions, a program can specify several options to be displayed in the "Programs and Features" panel. The default is an uninstall option, but there can also be options for repairing and changing any individual components.
However, back in the olden days of Windows 95/98, you could manage installed programs from the "Add/Remove Programs" control panel, which only contained a single option, named 'Add/Remove'. If the uninstaller supported anything more than a simple removal, it had to ask the user itself with a dialog box. To avoid user confusion, some programs that didn't support any fancy options would state so by adding "(remove only)" to the program uninstall entry.
Some people simply got into the habit of doing this and therefore it persists to this day.
All it means is that there are no other options available to the installation program.
Some installation programs have the options to change the installed options of the program and/or repair the existing options as well as the standard option to remove the application.
If the application is small and simple then "remove" is all that's needed.