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Let's say you have an iNode that is filled to capacity with no indirect pointers. If you give it one indirect pointer, does its maximum file size simply double?

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Unlike the inodes, which are fixed in number and allocated in a special part of the file system, the indirect blocks may be of any number and are allocated in the same part of the file system as data blocks. The number of pointers in the indirect blocks are dependent on the block size and size of block pointers. Example: with a 512 byte block size, and 4 byte block pointers, each indirect block can consist of 128 (512 / 4) pointers.

So no: The maximum file size more than doubles, since there are way more data block addresses in that single block pointed to by the indirect pointer than direct block addresses in the inode itself.

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