I created a Ubuntu Live CD and I have it running. The hard drive is mounted and I can see the Windows folder and some backup folders, but not any other folders or files.
How do I get to those?
In the file browser you should be able to see a list of "Hard Drives" (which are actually partitions on some drives, but still the icon is the same. You should be able to click on them to mount the partition and browse the files as normal. You might need to plug in a USB jump drive or some other storage media to copy the data off of the drive. If you need more help, you should specify what folders you're after. Typically there should be a "Documents and Settings" folder on the primary partition and under there are folders for users accounts (including Documents, Music and Desktop folders).