The answer, as has been suggested here already, is that the value has to be a string.
This is only an attempt to help you understand why.
This means it will be treated as a string in Access as well, which you now seem to be concerned with.
The best way to see the difference and maybe understand what is being said is to format some different cells in an excel sheet.
Forma one as general format, one as a number, and one as text. (Format>Cells>Number Category) Then type a 20 character number such as 99999999999999999999. Save the file as csv format and open in notepad to see the difference.
Preceding an entry with ' just tells excel the cell format in another way.
You mention exporting listview data to csv, so you must control the listview data which you want to save as text, not numeric. Access will not have a problem with this ever, unless you try to use the values as numbers, but they appear to be used as identifying numbers, not values.
What is the source of the listview data? Handling the cell format before the data is entering your sheet should solve your problem.