You can export your mailboxes to separate .PST files. Under the "File" menu, choose "Import and Export...," then follow the options to export to a .PST file (sometimes referred to in OutLook as "to another program or file" depending on which revision you're using).
You'll be presented with a common "Save as" dialogue box that you can use to select the target directory. After transferring the resulting .PST file(s) to the other computer, you'll be able to import from there using relatively the same process (except you'll be "Importing" this time instead of "Exporting").
Regarding which directory the folders are stored in, you have the right idea for where they should be stored, but it is possible that someone in the past set up your OutLook mailboxes to be stored at some other location. Under the "Tools" menu you should be able to find it under "Accounts" or something like that (sorry, Microsoft keeps changing the names of these items so I can never remember what they're supposed to be called) and then choosing the "Data files" tab (which will reveal the path to each mailbox file).