Uncheck "Rely on system fonts" in Acrobat Printer as follows:
1. Request to print the page (however you do that).
2. Select "Acrobat" as the printer (uses Acrobat Distiller)
3. Click on Acrobat Printer's "Properties" tab.
4. Go to bottom of dialog and UN-check "Rely on system fonts".
5. Click OK. Then "OK" again to print.
I suffered the same garbled text problem today while trying to print an online receipt to the Acrobat printer (aka "distiller"). I have Acrobat XI Pro installed.
Previously, when I had the same problem, I used the "Print as Image" option which fixed it but at the large expense of creating a huge digital image file whereas a true Acrobat image is quite small in comparison.
Today, while searching for the "Print as Image" option, I noticed on the 1st Acrobat Printer Properties dialog window, there was a checked box near the bottom that was enabling "Rely on system fonts". That seems like a bad choice in any case because you never know if your system's fonts will exactly match the document fonts. When they don't, I assume there would have to be some kind of substitution logic being performed. If it cannot find a close visual relative, it probably uses something wild or just barfs into the file (which it does look like :-)
So, I unchecked that option and, voila, the page printed with all the text correct. I thought I had a side effect when the background behind the text was a light gray so I printed to Microsoft XPS which is a nice alternative to Acrobat. It also showed the gray background so I assume the web page that was offered that up when I clicked the web page's Print Page button and it did, indeed, have the same gray background. The fonts matched exactly as well so I think it's all correct.
So, problem solved. When I repeated this method, I noticed the option was re-enabled so you have to do it each time or find the option to permanently set it to disabled. For now, I will reserved judgement on whether to make it permanent and just uncheck it when Acrobat decides to barf.
Lastly, in one of my tests, I did come across an Acrobat text log file in which it said, Font not found", further validating my supposition as to what the problem was.
[unsolicited opinion] I, like so many others, can't wait for Adobe to go under or get some humility so we can buy and own our products rather being forced pay a mafia fee or lose use of our products. For now, I'll keep using the last purchasable versions until I am forced to look elsewhere. The competition is slowly closing in. [end of diatribe]
Hope that helps.