If the drive or device you are trying to attach via the cable draws its power over the cable: Absolutely yes!
The length of the cable plays a larger role in this case that since it is low voltage power transmission. This is no IT topic, but pure physics.
Testcase: I've just attached two identical external 2,5" 1 TB HDDs via a 3 m USB 3.0 SuperSpeed cable. One worked. The other unmounted itself every few seconds. So the voltage drop was just on the edge, one drive worked, the other (again, identical model) didn't.
Another 1 TB drive model didn't work at all, yet another did. Switched to a 0,5 m cable and all drives works as expected.
(At least) 4 factors play a role
- The power consumption of the drive
- The length of the cable
- The cable quality (= mainly wire diameter) and shielding
- The output of the USB port (my MacPro front ports offer more power than the USB standard defines, on this ports, the 3 m cable works)
What you can do:
- Use devices with their own power supply (best solution)
- Use a high quality or shorter cable (a little gamble)
- Use an "active" cable if you need a longer one
While the USB 3.0 standard doesn't strictly define a cable length a maximum of 3 m is recommended. Active cables can be longer than that.