Here is the (hypothetical) situation: I have one low-performance, high-mobility device (laptop) and one high-performance, low-mobility device (desktop workstation). The two are used as frequently as each other, depending on the situation. I would like the operating system on both machines to be totally in sync - not just in terms of files, but also installed programs, preferences, e.t.c.
I know that it is possible to run Linux from an external hard-drive. Would it thus be possible to install Linux on such a device, and have high-performance when it is plugged into the desktop? I can understand that the transfer speed over USB would be significantly lower than for an internal hard drive, but would the high-performance I am after be possible through a faster connection (e.g. Thunderbolt at max 10Gbps, for a hypothetical example)?