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What is the difference between the following error messages?

  1. The instruction at "<address>" referenced memory at "<address>". The memory could not be "read"/"written".

  2. <application name> has stopped working (assuming an access violation occurred; this message is used for any other program crash as well)

In both cases, the program has performed an invalid memory access (access violation, aka segmentation fault). What determines the exact error message displayed?

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