There's pretty much no way to do what you want the way you want it. If the processor isn't soldered to the motherboard, you could get a replacement motherboard for this particular computer and then use it as a HTP. Otherwise, there's nothing you can do.
Laptops use custom connectors for some types of optical drives, so if yours is custom, you can try to find a converter somewhere, but it's a long shot. On the other hand, it could be just regular SATA, so try to post a picture.
The processor itself, if it's in a socket, won't be of much use for desktops. There were converters which allowed specific laptop processors to be used with some specific motherboards, but I'm unaware that anyone is making them for any of the currently used sockets, so that is bed news.
As far as RAM is concerned, it's the same story. Laptops use small outline memory modules which aren't used in desktop computers. You may be able to find a use for them is some specific devices such as FPGA boards and so on, but I guess that if you have one of such devices, you'd already know that. Another option would be to save the modules and hope that some printer or similar appliance will make use of it in 5 to 10 years (they usually use that old memory modules right now).
So the best option if you know how to disassemble components would be to sell the laptop for parts. Check prices of similar components on say eBay and see how much they cost.
Laptop processors, if socketed, are usually very expensive and you could recover some money by selling it, if you think it works.
The optical drive could be used in a desktop computer if it's using regular SATA (note that the power and data connectors could be right next to each-other and may be one part, but the cables should still be able to fit fine). Otherwise, you could try selling it too.
The HDD is most likely just standard SATA HDD and there's no reason why not to use it in a computer, so it can stay.
The RAM, as I said, could be used in another laptop using the same type of RAM, in some sort of special device or you could sell it too, but it isn't as expensive as the rest of the devices and the sale may be a bit more difficult since it's (unlike processors) commonly available as upgrade part.
Also try to sell the screen if you can, as it can also be an expensive part!