The simple answer is no. The long answer is...
NTFS does store filenames in a case-sensitive way (NTFS can have README.txt and readme.txt in the same directory), and even the Windows filemanager can internally manage case-sensitive requests to filenames via the NtOpenFile / NtCreateFile syscalls.
Unfortunately for you, the Win32 function CreateFile (used everywhere including by fopen) will internally call NtCreateFile using the OBJ_CASE_INSENSITIVE flag which will mean that all applications which use CreateFile will see your case-sensitive filesystem case-insensitively. In practise this means that all applications will see your filesystem in a case-insensitive way regardless of whether your filesystem is actually case-sensitive under the hood.
The only way I can think for you to practically force case-sensitivity is to write a filter-driver which will remove the OBJ_CASE_INSENSITIVE flag from the incoming syscall requests which will then allow NTFS, EXT2 or whatever internal filesystem you have to behave in their default, case-sensitive way.