Windows allows you to fallback to an alternative Static IP, which is covered in this related question:
If you configure each AP to use Automatic Private IP Addressing, then multiple access points can be configured to automatically assign IP addresses without DHCP:
The Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) has reserved 169.254.0.0-169.254.255.255 for Automatic Private IP Addressing. As a result, APIPA provides an address that is guaranteed not to conflict with routable addresses.
After the network adapter has been assigned an IP address, the computer can use TCP/IP to communicate with any other computer that is connected to the same LAN and that is also configured for APIPA or has the IP address manually set to the 169.254.x.y (where x.y is the client’s unique identifier) address range with a subnet mask of 255.255.0.0. Note that the computer cannot communicate with computers on other subnets, or with computers that do not use automatic private IP addressing. Automatic private IP addressing is enabled by default.
You may want to disable it in any of the following cases:
- Your network uses routers.
- Your network is connected to the Internet without a NAT or proxy server.
Unless you have disabled DHCP-related messages, DHCP messages provide you with notification when you change between DHCP addressing and automatic private IP addressing. If DHCP messaging is accidentally disabled, you can turn the DHCP messages back on by changing the value of the PopupFlag value in the following registry key from 00 to 01:
OSX allows mixing local and remote access points as well via link-local addressing.
Dynamic Configuration of IPv4 Link-Local Addresses
IPv6 Address Types
Mixing link-local IP addresses and routable IP addresses
Zero Configuration Networking
Airport: About Using Link-Local Addressing
Service Publication: An Example