Yes it does. I am having the same issue even if i am not using S3 as storage. I have a Symfony2 app that serves the contents of a local file for download. The url is always the same because i am getting the contents of the file in PHP and send them to the browser. If i modify the content of the local file, Firefox and IE will receive the latest file version BUT chrome won't. I tried to set cache control headers but it's useless, Chrome just ignores them.
Some idea of the headers i am using:
If i add a random version number to the url (?version=randomIntByTime) Chrome will finally save the latest version of the file. It is frustrating to write extra code for Chrome.