When I deploy my project to an
exe file and bring it into another, which computer hasn't installed MATLAB yet, does it work fine or do I need to install something?
For example, Java apps need the Java JRE/JDK.
It looks like the MATLAB compiler may need to be present at the target computer. Using MATLAB command
should provide the location of the installer on the host machine. This application is shipped with MATLAB installation and should be redistributed with MATLAB executables. Here's an article on that.
MATLAB executables which work with .Net, Java or Excel will need installation of .Net, Java or Excel in addition to the compiler.
The official information on redistribution is available here.