I got an external Debian server. The problem is that my university campus doesn't allow connections to go outside when the port is different than TCP port 22, 80, 443, or UDP port 123. I tested them manually. On my Debian server I would like to listen to all my UDP and TCP ports so I can clearly figure out which TCP and UDP ports my university let through their firewall. Nmap is wonderful on the client side to test that, but what should I do on the server side?
No need to listen to all ports.
Just use tcpdump:
Every packet that makes it through the firewall to the debian server will be shown.