Is it possible for a guest to determine the an interface type (i.e., whether eth0 is NAT, host only, bridged or internal)?
Something to be run from the guest like this:
guest-vm ~# vbox-interface eth0
eth0 is a NAT interface.
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The closest thing to what you are looking for is VirtualBox Guest Additions and it unfortunately does not offer that functionality. Guest Additions will give the host the ability to interact with guest through a variety of APIs and utilities but I don't think there is anyway for guest to query the host for information about the "hardware" that VirtualBox presents to it.