As the others have mentioned more accurately than I, these IP addresses you mention are all Private IP addresses. You'll find these on local private, personal, home, or some small business networks.
What none of the other answers have mentioned though is that with certain exceptions, any number formatted xxx.xxx.xxx.xxx could be a valid IP address. That means nearly every combination from 0.0.0.0 to 255.255.255.255 could be an IP address. That's over 4 billion possible combinations (which isn't all that many, when you compare it with the number of devices that connect to the internet).
The 255.xxx.xxx.xxx are reserved for subnet numbers, and the three ranges you specified are reserved for private networks, most of the rest of the possible ranges are purchased by or assigned to organizations or corporations for their own networks. These may be ISPs which will assign a public IP address to any modem connecting to them (the modems then assign private IP addresses to the clients connecting through them, so you may have a completely random looking ip address at your modem, but the three computers you have on your home network would have 192.168.0.xxx addresses), or they may be huge corporations which assign public IP addresses to each of their client computers. You can see how the sheer number of devices connecting to the internet very quickly exceeds 4 billion, and thus why people talk about running out of IP addresses. They're talking about what is called IPv4, or version 4 of the Internet Protocol. IPv6 uses longer addresses which I believe are hexidecimal (allowing not just 0-9 characters, but 0-f, where f is equivalent in decimal to 16, hence the name hexi- (six) decimal (ten)). The possible addresses in IPv6 are said to be enough to address nearly every particle in the universe, which I think underestimates the universe. Suffice it to say, it's a lot, and we're not as likely to run out so soon.