This example gives directions on how to restore a particular file, but does anyone have experience restoring full directories on Linux from a Time Machine backup store? How should these instructions be modified, or they would not be applicable at all?
Restoring a full directory tree will basically be repeating that style of navigation many times, possibly descending into another subdirectory with that same approach too. The closest tool to that I'm aware of is timecopy, which is aimed to do the restore from a Mac host. The Python code it's using the navigate the directory tree is mostly portable, but the way it accesses xattr functions won't be.