I'm new to Linux and not really sure how the file system works.
When you install a program in Windows, it stores the program's files in the Program Files folder and creates an icon in the Start menu. If I want to create an icon myself, I just search for the exe, as there is usually only one exe file with the program name, and I create a shortcut to launch it.
Could someone explain me what happens when I install a program on Linux? (by running a .deb file) Where does it store the program's files, how can I identify the file I have to run to start the application, and how do I create a shortcut to run it?