Have you tried right-clicking on the VM in the vSphere Client (which is where your pictures are from) and selecting
It is possible that you can't enlarge that disk, perhaps because of the format (Thick Provisioned Eager Zeroed). If so, you could add another disk instead.
As for changing the disk, remember that will actually change the size and more of the disk without changing the data on the disk: thus, the partition will be the same size as before, the partition layout will be the same, and so on - except the system may report the partition tables as corrupt because the size has changed.
You'd probably be better off putting in a new disk; as far as I know, Windows doesn't have anything like LVM which would allow you to stretch a disk volume across multiple physical partitions or disks.