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I want to be able to set up such a network with using just one router and having just one cable on the specified part of the network.

I could do this with 2 routers easily(one located near computer 1 and one in the room where the other two computers are located. But can I do it with only one router(without wireless)

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You can do it with 1 router, but you'll need a switch as well ;) – Oliver Salzburg Feb 20 '12 at 10:49
If you want to be cheap; a hub, otherwise go for a switch. They cost less than a router as they are just "dumb" devices. Eg. No configuration and other special things, they just do what they need to do. – Tom Wijsman Feb 20 '12 at 14:00
Are you just trying to not run multiple cables? If so, there is always a multi-cable: – MaQleod Jul 17 '12 at 19:40
up vote 5 down vote accepted
   Phone line ...... [DSL-modem/Router/Switch]               [Switch]
                                       oooo                   oooo
                                       |  |                   ||||
                                       |  `-------------------'|| `------- [C2]
                               [C1] ---'                       | `-------- [C3]
                                                                `--------- [Printer]

   Key:   ....  Phone cable
          ----  Cat5/6/6e Ethernet cable
          [xx]  Device in 1 case
          o     100Base-T port (8P8C socket aka RJ45 socket) for Ethernet patch cable
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Always +1 for the ASCII effort! :D (And it's just a proper answer) – BloodPhilia Feb 20 '12 at 12:04
nice ASCII Art :-) – user4711 Feb 20 '12 at 12:18

If you would really want to share media you could get yourself a Cheapernet system as described here: Sincerly you don't want to do that. So instead of having a second router, get yourself a decent ethernet switch for at least 100BaseT or faster.

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What you need is a switch. A network switch lives in the space between a router and a network hub, in that it's smart enough to send traffic only where it needs to go, but doesn't have all the smarts of a router, like a DHCP server, firewall, and NAT. A hub, by the way, just sends all packets coming into one port to all the other ports. It's pretty dumb that way.

You would string your single cable from the router where your internet comes in to the network switch located near your printer and second and third computers. Then it's just short cables from the switch to each device.

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