An ISO usually refers to a container file that contains a file system with the data that file system references. Simply put, it's a copy of a file system in a file.
This is fine when working with a ROM (like a CD or DVD), as those are inherently simple from a file system aspect. Like, to my knowledge, the ISO 9660 format doesn't include file-level encryption, compression or journaling.
File systems in use on hard drives have all that. So a container file format that wants to copy such a file system should better support all of those features (for all known file system types would be great).
Obviously, nobody would want to write and support such a container format.
It makes a lot more sense to just go one level deeper when creating an image of a hard drive and just copy the raw data off the drive (using tools like
dd). That data has no structure at all, so there is no file format either.
You could do the same for CD/DVDs, but having a standard format for something like this is obviously an advantage over raw bit streams. Besides that, there are things like VHD, which is a container file for virtual hard disks. They can also be mounted in Windows and be used like normal drives. So the concept is similar to
.iso files. There are a multitude of virtual disk drive container formats out there of course. I just picked VHD as an example.
To create a VHD from a physical disk, you can use Disk2vhd.
VHDs can be mounted in the Disk Management snap-in or via the command line. Said snap-in also allows you to simply create new, empty VHD containers. Under certain conditions, that might be more desirable than using the Disk2vhd approach.
I don't know a direct way to deploy the contents of a VHD to a disk drive. But once it is mounted, usual imaging procedures apply.