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Why all (or almost all) devices are has special transceivers such as this?

Why aren't they embedded into Fibre Channel card, switches and other devices?

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Basically it means you can buy a FC card or a switch, and the SFP to match your fiber needs, rather than needing multiple variants of FC cards/switches for each fiber type/distance/wavelength - much less the combinations that are possible.

As a basic example, you might have a switch that has an 80Km single-mode SFP connected to a datacenter in another city, a 10km singlemode SFP connected to another building on the same campus, and a 1Km multimode SFP connected to another switch in the same building.

In fiberchannel, you might have a bank of disks connected by short-range multimode in the building, another connected by short-range singlemode in the area, and a third connected by long-range singlemode in a data bunker somewhere far away.

Without even getting exotic, you have 850 and 1300 nm multimode, 1310, 1490 and 1550 singlemode. 1620 singlmode is a bit more exotic, but not uncommon. You have various ranges (affected by both power out and reciever sensitivity.) You have bi-directional versions, transmitting both directions over one fiber at different wavelengths. Then you can diverge into exotic options....

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Ive seen the fibre channel transceivers embedded in the cable... not useful if the cable isnt long enough. –  Keltari Sep 30 '13 at 15:42

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