No, interrupting the partitioning process probably didn't cause the hard drive to become bad. However, if you were using a utility to resize the partitions, a lot of data would have gotten shuffled around, and in the process some previously-unreported bad sectors could have been discovered.
It may be the case that the hard drive was failing already and that's why it originally seemed like the repartitioning process had locked up.
You should try running SMART diagnostics on the drive. If you don't have another computer you can plug it into, you can boot off an Ubuntu Live CD. First, unplug any other hard drives, then open a terminal and type the following:
apt-get install smartmontools
smartctl -a /dev/sda
Check the Reallocated Sector Count. If the raw value is greater than zero, the hard drive has already started failing and would be a ticking timebomb if you were to continue using it. If this is the case, you should replace it, especially if it's still under warranty.
Hard drives do have a certain number of "spare" sectors which will be used to automatically replace bad sectors, and once the spare sectors run out, chkdsk (on Windows) or badblocks (on Linux) will start to report bad sectors. Although it has generally been considered okay to have a few reallocated sectors, you may also notice increasingly worse disk performance as more and more sectors are reallocated.
Update: based on your SMART diagnostics, I'd recommend replacing the drive. If you want to use it anyway, I'd at least recommend checking the power supply and the power and data cables. Then I'd image the drive, do a full read/write test, and run the SMART diagnostics again before putting it back in service. But even then, I still wouldn't trust it.
To do a thorough disk surface test, follow the instructions below. (WARNING: this will destroy all data on the drive!) Alternatively, you can do a chkdsk /r in Windows, but that won't be quite as thorough. Note that this will not reset the drive's SMART data. You will have to check with the drive manufacturer to see whether they have made any tools available to consumers which will do this. (My guess would be no, since unscrupulous fellows could then sell defective hard drives that look like new, perfect drives, according to the SMART data.)
- Remove all other hard drives, flash drives, etc. (So you only have the goofy hard drive and the CD/DVD drive)
- Boot off an Ubuntu Live CD
- Open a terminal and type this command (you'll probably want to let it run overnight):
badblocks -wvs /dev/sda
- After badblocks finishes, run your SMART diagnostics again and compare with the previous values.
The badblocks command listed above will make four passes, writing and reading each of the following patterns: 10101010, 01010101, 11111111, and 00000000--leaving it completely zeroed in the end. Afterward, you will need to partition and format the drive.
Again, because of the high read error rate reported by the SMART diagnostics, I still wouldn't trust the drive to reliably store anything that can't be easily restored or reproduced.